Chapter Linux traffic control Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 | Red Hat Customer Portal

TC for options. /Tc, /Tp, /TC, /TP (Specify Source File Type) | Microsoft Docs

Simplest usable qdisc, pure First In, First Out behaviour.

tc(8) — Linux manual page

Limited in packets or in bytes. Consists of a three-band queue which honors Type of Service flags, as well as the priority that may be assigned to a packet.

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Well suited to very large bandwidth applications. Scales well to large bandwidths. Configuring Classless TC for options In the absence of classful qdiscs, classless qdiscs can only be attached at the root of a device.

It contains shaping elements as well as prioritizing capabilities. Shaping is performed using link idle time calculations based on average packet size and underlying link bandwidth. The latter may be ill-defined for some interfaces. HTB The Hierarchy Token Bucket implements a rich linksharing hierarchy of classes with an emphasis on conforming to existing practices. HTB facilitates guaranteeing bandwidth to classes, while also allowing specification of upper limits to inter-class sharing.

TC options

It contains shaping elements, based on TBF and can prioritize classes. This allows for easy prioritization of traffic, where lower classes are only able to send if higher ones have no packets available.

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To facilitate configuration, Type Of Service bits are honored by default. Theory Of Operation Classes form a tree, where each class has a single parent.

Chapter 24. Linux traffic control

A class may have multiple children. Qdiscs which allow dynamic addition of classes can have zero or more subclasses to which traffic may be enqueued. Furthermore, each class contains a leaf qdisc which by default has pfifo behaviour though another qdisc can be attached in place.

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This qdisc may again contain classes, but each class can have only one leaf qdisc. When a packet enters a classful qdisc it can be classified to one of the classes within. Three criteria are available, although not all qdiscs will use all three: tc filters If tc filters are attached to a class, they are consulted first for relevant instructions.

Filters can match on all fields of a packet header, as well as on the firewall mark applied by ipchains or iptables.

tc(8) - Linux manual page

Each node within the tree can have its own filters but higher level filters may also point directly to lower classes. If classification did not succeed, packets are enqueued to the leaf qdisc attached to that class.

  • Linux "tc" Command Line Options and Examples
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  • Shaping may be more than lowering the available bandwidth - it is also used to smooth out bursts in traffic for better network behaviour.
  • tc(8): show/change traffic control settings - Linux man page
  • Chapter Linux traffic control Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 | Red Hat Customer Portal
  • Shaping may be more than lowering the available bandwidth - it is also used to smooth out bursts in traffic for better network behaviour.

Check qdisc specific manpages for details, however. Naming All qdiscs, classes and filters have IDs, which can either be specified or be automatically assigned. IDs consist of a major number and a minor number, separated by a colon. QDISCS A qdisc, which potentially can have children, gets assigned a major number, called a 'handle', leaving the minor number namespace available for classes.

The handle is TC for options as ''.

tc(8) - Linux man page

It is customary to explicitly assign a handle to qdiscs expected to have children. CLASSES Classes residing under a qdisc share their qdisc major number, but each have a separate minor number called a 'classid' that has no relation to their parent classes, only to their parent qdisc. The same naming custom as for qdiscs applies.

  • Ubuntu Manpage: tc - show / manipulate traffic control settings
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Units All parameters accept a floating point number, possibly followed by a unit. Bandwidths or rates can be specified in: kbps.