The Digital Divide

Is it possible to believe earnings over the Internet. Protecting Yourself While Using The Internet

Estimated reading time Time 22 to read Introduction In many ways, it is difficult to discuss any aspect of contemporary society without considering the Internet. The Internet is already an integral element of education in over developed nations, and we can be certain that its worldwide educational significance will continue to increase throughout this decade. That said, the educational impact of the Internet is not straightforward.

Introduction

While this is likely to change with the global expansion of mobile telephony, the issue of unequal access to the most enabling and empowering forms of Internet use option for 30 seconds a major concern.

As such, this chapter will is it possible to believe earnings over the Internet the following questions: What are the potential implications of the Internet for education and learning? What dominant forms of Internet-based education have emerged over the past 20 years? How does the educational potential of the Internet relate to the realities of its use? Most importantly, how should we understand the potential gains and losses of what is being advanced?

The Internet as an Educational Tool For many commentators, the Internet has always been an inherently educational tool. Indeed, many people would argue that the main characteristics of the Internet align closely with the core concerns of education.

The participatory, communal nature of many social Internet applications and activities is aligned closely with the fundamental qualities of how humans learn, not least the practices of creating, sharing, collaborating, and critiquing. Bush and Dawson Beyond such hyperbole, the implications of the Internet for education and learning can be understood in at least four distinct ways.

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This is often expressed in terms of reducing constraints of place, space, time, and geography, with individuals able to access high-quality learning opportunities and educational provision regardless of local circumstances. Many educators would consider learners to benefit from the socially rich environments that the Internet can support see Luckin For example, it is often argued that the Internet offers individuals enhanced access to sources of knowledge and expertise that exist outside of their immediate environment.

It is sometimes argued that the Internet supports forms of knowledge creation and knowledge consumption that differ greatly from the epistemological presumptions of formal schooling and mass instruction. The networked relationships that Internet users have with online information have prompted wholesale reassessments of the nature of learning.

The Internet is associated with an enhanced social autonomy and control, offering individuals increased choice over the nature and form of what they learn, as well as where, when, and how they learn it.

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  3. October 19, The Future of Truth and Misinformation Online Experts are evenly split on whether the coming decade will see a reduction in false and misleading narratives online.

For many commentators, therefore, the Internet contradicts the monopoly of state education systems and the vested interests of the professions that work within them. In terms of how education is provided, the Internet is associated with a range of radically different learning practices and altered social relations. The Internet has certainly prompted ongoing debate and concern within the educational community. There have been various proposals over the past decade for the development of educational institutions that are better aligned with the characteristics of Internet-adept learners and online knowledge.

Instead, Internet-based education is conceived along lines of open discussion, open debate, radical questioning, continuous experimentation, and the sharing of knowledge.

As Dale Stephens9 reasons: The systems and institutions that we see around us—of schools, college, and work—are being systematically dismantled….

These are all highly contestable but highly seductive propositions. Indeed, whether one agrees with them or not, these arguments all highlight the fundamental challenge of the Internet to what was experienced throughout the past one hundred years or so as the dominant mode of education.

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In this sense, we should acknowledge that the Internet has been long used for educational purposes, and a number of prominent models of Internet-based education have emerged over the past 20 years. These programs which continue to the present day tend to rely on online content management systems, albeit supported by some form of interactivity in the form of e-mail, bulletin boards, and other communications systems.

Other asynchronous forms of virtual classroom exist in the form of digital spaces where resources can be accessed and shared—such as audio recordings and text transcripts of lectures, supplementary readings, and discussion forums.

Despite ongoing debates over its accuracy and coverage, the educational significance of Wikipedia is considerable. The belief now persists amongst many educators that mass user-driven applications such as Wikipedia allow individuals to engage in learning activities that are more personally meaningful and more publically significant than was ever possible before.

As John Willinskyxiii reasons: Today a student who makes the slightest correction to a Wikipedia article is contributing more to the state of public knowledge, in a matter of minutes, than I was able to do over the course of my entire grade school education, such as it was. In this manner, it is reckoned that content from almost 80 percent of courses at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology are available on this free-to-use basis.

Similar commitments can be found in institutions ranging from world-class universities such as Yale and Oxford to local community colleges. In all these cases, course materials such as seminar notes, podcasts, and videos of lectures are shared online with a is it possible to believe earnings over the Internet population of learners, most of whom could otherwise not attend.

Crucially as with Wikipediathe emphasis of Open Educational Resources is not merely permitting individuals to use provided materials, but encouraging the alteration and is it possible to believe earnings over the Internet of these resources as required. Other forms of online content sharing involve the open distribution of educational content that has been created by individuals as well as institutions.

For example, the YouTube EDU service offers access to millions of educational videos produced by individual educators and learners. The aim of Khan Academy is to support individuals to learn at their own pace and to revisit learning content on a repeated basis. Face-to-face classroom time can be then be devoted to the practical application of the knowledge through problem solving, discovery work, project-based learning, and experiments Khan options today example Now, most notably through successful large-scale ventures such as Coursera and Ed-X, MOOCs involve the online delivery of courses on a free-at-the-point-of-contact basis to mass audiences.

This focus on individually directed discovery learning has proved especially appropriate to college-level education.

Now it is possible for individuals of all ages to participate in mass online courses run by professors from the likes of Stanford, MIT, and Harvard universities in subjects ranging from a Yale elective in Roman architecture to a Harvard course in the fundamentals of neuroscience.

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This approach is seen to be especially applicable to locations such as slum communities in India and What you can learn to make money on the Internet where Internet access is otherwise lacking. These programs, projects, and initiatives are indicative of the variety of ways in which education and the Internet have coalesced over the past 20 years.

As the cultural anthropologist Mimi Ito has described, there are various different genres of everyday Internet-based practice that can be said to involve elements of learning see Ito et al.

This messing around can then sometimes lead to the more intense commitment of what Ito has described asgeeking out. These are bouts of concentrated and intense participation within defined communities of like-minded and similarly interested individuals driven by common and often specialized interests.

Rather, established cultures and traditions of education also have a profound reciprocal influence on technologies. While understandable, these continuities certainly belie claims of radical transformation and disruption of the educational status quo. For instance, rather than extending educational opportunities to those who previously were excluded, the recent rise of the MOOC in countries such as the U.

This leaves any attempts to predict the likely influence of the Internet on future forms of education on uncertain ground. Yet it is equally unwise to presume that any of the examples given so far in the chapter necessarily herald a fundamental shift in education. In this respect, perhaps the most significant issues that need to be considered about the Internet and education are sociological, rather than technical, in nature. In this sense, the Internet prompts a range of ideological questions rather than purely technical answers about the nature of education in the near future.

Thus, as this chapter draws to a close we should move away from the optimistic speculation that pervades most educational discussions of the Internet. Instead, there are a number of important is it possible to believe earnings over the Internet less often acknowledged social, cultural, and political implications that also merit attention: 1.

The Internet and the increased individualization of education First, then, is the way in which Internet-based education promotes an implicit individualization of practice and action. The Internet is celebrated by many educationalists as increasing the responsibility of individuals in terms of making choices with regards to education, as well as dealing with the consequences of their choice.

Of course, this is usually assumed to work in favor of the individual and to the detriment of formal institutions. Yet the idea of the self-responsibilized, self-determining learner is based upon an unrealistic assumption that all individuals have a capacity to act in an agentic, empowered fashion throughout the course of their day-to-day lives.

Of course, only a privileged minority of people are able to act in a largely empowered fashion. As such this individualization of action leads to education becoming an area of increased risk as well as opportunity.

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These issues raise a number of important questions. What is the nature of the collective forms of Internet-based education? Is the Internet undermining or even eroding notions of education as a public good? The Internet and the growth of data-driven education Another significant issue related to the increased educational significance of the Internet is the ways in which online data and information are now defining, as well as describing, social life.

In this section

The Internet has certainly extended the significance of databases, data mining, analytics, and algorithms, with organizations and institutions functioning increasingly through the ongoing collection, aggregation, and re analysis of data. The collection and analysis of online data is now a key aspect of how actions are structured and decisions are made in many areas of education.

These data are used for a variety of purposes—including internal course administration, target setting, performance management, and student tracking. There are, of course, many potential advantages to the heightened significance of online data.

Yet, there is a clear need for caution amidst these potential advantages—not least how the increased prevalence of online data in education is implicated in the shaping of what people can and cannot do.

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For example, how are individuals and their learning being represented by data collected online? How does the Internet support the connection, aggregation, and use of these data in ways not before possible?

The Future of Truth and Misinformation Online

The Internet and the increased commercialization and privatization of education Thirdly, is the need to recognize the role of commercial and private actors in the growth of Internet-based education. Indeed, the role of the private sector is integral to many of the forms of Internet-based education described in this chapter. A range of multinational commercial interests such as Pearson, Cengage, and McGraw-Hill are now involved heavily in is it possible to believe earnings over the Internet business of e-learning and online provision of teaching and training—competing with countless smaller commercial concerns and a range of nonprofit organizations.

Of course, the increased involvement of commercial interests in online education could be seen to have many potential benefits. The private sector is able to focus considerable technological resources and expertise on educational issues. Face it. For example, how committed are IT producers and vendors to the public good of educational technology above and beyond matters of profit and market share?

What are the moral and ethical implications of reshaping education along the lines of market forces and commercial values? Why should education correspond automatically with the needs of the digital economy?

The Internet and the changing values of education Finally—and perhaps less tangibly—there is also a sense that the Internet might be altering the psychological, emotional, and spiritual bases of education.

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This raises questions of what is perhaps lost when one is able to engage with education at all times of the day and in all contexts? Is there something to be said for being able to disconnect from the pressures of education? Is learning best suited to some contexts and circumstances than others? Many of the forms of online education described in this chapter could also be said to frame learning often inadvertently as a competitive endeavor.

Thus while a sense of achievement at the expense of others may not be immediately apparent, the Internet could be seen as a means of humanizing, disguising, and intensifying the competitive connotations of learning. All these points also relate to the correspondences between the Internet and the altered emotional aspects of educational engagement.

In particular, many of the forms of Internet-based education described earlier in this chapter such as the virtual school or the MOOC could be said to involve learning being experienced on less immediate, less intimate, and perhaps more instrumental grounds.

Certainly, the remote, virtual sense of learning online is qualitatively different to the embodied sense of face-to-face learning—both in advantageous and disadvantageous ways. The predominantly optimistic rhetoric of transformation and change that currently surrounds the Internet and education distracts from a number of significant conflicts and tensions that need to binary options strategy for better acknowledged and addressed.

There are, after all, many people who will be advantaged by more individualized, elitist, competitive, market-driven, omnipresent, and de-emotionalized forms of educational engagement. The Internet clearly works for the millions of people who are learning online at this very moment.

Perhaps the most important point to consider is the well-worn tendency of digital technology to reinforce existing patterns of educational engagement—helping already engaged individuals to participate further, but doing little to widen participation or reengage those who are previously disengaged. To reiterate a key theme that has emerged throughout our discussion, underlying all of the issues raised in this chapter are questions of what sort of future education one believes in.

The future of education may well involve increased use of the Internet—but will not be determined by it.

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References Allen, Ansgar. Arora, Payal. A Digital Promise for Free Learning. Bauman, Zygmunt. The Individualized Society. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press, Bernstein, Basil. New York: Peter Lang, Boyd, Danah, and Kate Crawford.