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Hydrology Abstract Seawater desalination is already a largely adopted option to option ro with the scarcity of natural water resources, but the increasing concerns about water availability in the future make it even more attractive. Because desalination is a highly energy-demanding process, its option ro with renewable energy sources is an essential step for the sustainable production of desalinated water at large scales.
In this work we analyze the potential to deploy large-scale seawater desalination using reverse osmosis RO under the hypothesis that all the required energy is provided by photovoltaic PV production. This suggests that water management policies could consider desalination more broadly and encourage PV-based RO, as a possible win-win and cost-effective strategy to improve water and energy resources security.
Download PDF Introduction The growing need for freshwater resources, and increasing concerns about water availability in the future, are making seawater desalination an attractive option in many regions worldwide.
Some countries have already installed a considerable desalination capacity to cope with systematic water shortages e. Currently, the technology most commonly used for large-volume seawater desalination is reverse osmosis RO 123 that overcame thermal technologies in the last decades.
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While more efficient than option ro the past, RO desalination is a highly energy-demanding process, with state-of-the-art technologies requiring between 2 and 4 kWh of electricity for the production of 1m3 of clean water 45. If fossil fuels are used to produce the required energy, the carbon footprint of RO desalination is consequently high, making it non-sustainable.
Although it has been shown that RO desalination can be fully fed with renewable energy sources 6the intermittency of these sources requires to store energy in order to ensure continuous water production.
In principle, electricity can be stored through the power grid; however, where the grid is not available e.
This may even become critical when thinking desalination as a main source of freshwater over a region. The aim of bitcoin bet work is to analyze the implications of large-scale RO option ro, if all the required energy is to come from renewable sources.
Replant Option (RO)
We quantify the potential to deploy seawater RO desalination over the extended Mediterranean region considering photovoltaic PV as the most commonly accessible renewable energy source e. In the analysis, we consider standard and well-established technologies, with typical parametrizations; detailed plant optimization is instead option ro of the scope of the paper. We consider the about 6, sites of potential desalination plants identified in 7and for each site we compute the PV capacity that we need to install in order to fully feed a RO desalination plant.
The variability of available solar radiation at the site determines the energy storage needs in order to ensure a scheduled production of clean water, either with at-plant facilities batteries and pumped-water reservoirs or through exchanges with the grid.
We present and discuss the following performance indicators under different plant configurations: 1 percent of the time when the plant can be run without requiring power from the grid plant autonomy ; 2 the total energy exchanged with the grid a proxy for the cost of grid use ; 3 the statistics of power exchanges with the grid a proxy of the impact of large-scale desalination on the grid ; and 4 the size of the required at-plant energy storage.
Methods PV-RO plant layouts considered in this study The analysis is based on the simulation of schematic PV-powered Option ro plants using a deterministic algorithm described in further details in the supporting information SI. The simulation is performed at hourly step considering a time series of PV producibility based on option ro. The plant is assumed to operate with an energy recovery device ERD allowing the recovery of energy from high-pressure concentrate e.
The latter generates power following the diel and internet earnings on binary options variation of solar radiation.
The power that can be produced by a PV plant of nominal capacity CPV kWp is estimated on the basis of the time series of PV producibility estimated by 8. Under the assumed modular scheduling, we option ro that maximum water production is typically about 2 times the minimum production rate with values ranging from about 1.
This suggests the adopted design to be a good compromise between a plant with fully variable RO operation on direct gear with PV power generation, and a plant with constant production over time which would require a much larger energy storage than the modular scheduling.
For what concerns energy storage, we consider two possibilities: 1 energy is only exchanged with the power grid, which provides electricity when PV production is not sufficient and receives the electricity produced by the PV plant when this exceeds the RO plant requirements; 2 part of the energy produced by the PV plant in excess of RO plant requirements is stored in a battery at the plant.
ERD indicates the energy recovery device.
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Moreover, the energy required to pump flow rate QRES into the reservoir is assumed to be provided only by direct PV power, so that grid and battery are never used to increase water storage.
For the sake of simplicity, energy losses in the battery and grid exchange are neglected. The area has between and million people that could be serviced with desalinated water at affordable costs of transport 7.
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Potential sites for RO desalination plants are selected for their favorable topography and land cover 7resulting in a set of 5, potential locations. For each site we consider the time series of PV producibility in the period January December from 12 based on 8.
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Reservoir elevation HRES is estimated as the maximum elevation found within a search radius of 1 km around the plant location; the analysis is also repeated considering the maximum elevation within 2 km radius. Figure 2 Map of the 5, potential plants aclustered by geographical proximity the number indicates how option ro plant sites are located around the circle. The median energy requirement is about 3. For example, a feed pressure of A topographic elevation of to m is not negligible compared to this total head.
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Option ro size table PV capacity requirements and on-site energy storage The production of 1 m3 of clean water per day requires to install a nominal capacity that depend on the PV productivity as described in Eq.
A median value option ro 0. The design size of the battery and reservoir have been computed as the 95th percentile binary options dragon options reviews the empirical frequency curve of the hourly battery charge level and the hourly reservoir water storage, respectively.
This percentile-based size can be considered more robust with respect to the absolute maximum values, which are highly influenced by sporadic critical conditions. The marginal distributions of the two variables are represented as cumulates in panes b and c.
Similar considerations can be made for 2 km search radius although the performances of the reservoir are slightly improved results not shown here for conciseness. It is worth noting that the instantaneous power exchanged with the grid is not symmetric: when the grid supplies power to the plant, the limit option ro the maximum power used by the booster pump and depends on the water production pattern and on seawater salinity.
On the other hand, the PV production exceedance is supplied to the grid without any limitation; for the peak power sent option ro the grid, we consider the 95th percentile of the empirical frequency curve of the hourly power in order to exclude extreme peaks. Peaks of power taken from the grid are for each setup bounded within approximately 1. These peak values refer to power exchanges at the individual plant level, while we may expect the average of exchanges over several sites to have smaller fluctuations.
In order to appraise this, we have evaluated a virtual scenario in which plants at all potential sites operate at the same production rate of clean water.
Further, we make the hypothesis that all the plants are connected with an electric grid able to redistribute instantaneously the power among the plants.
Under these ideal conditions, the net power peaks to the grid would reduce to 0. Discussion and Conclusions Implications of the PV capacity required for the mediterranean region According to the simulations, PV capacity has a median value of 0. If we extrapolate to the large-scale, considering a daily consumption of 0.
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option ro With the same extrapolation, assuming 7 m2 of solar panels required for a capacity of 1 kW the overall area needed to supply water for — million people would be approximately — km2, respectively. Although these values do not reflect the actual variability of the local costs over the study area particularly important for reservoirs and do not account for economies of scale, they allow a cost-based ranking of the plants, highlighting sites where the energy storage is potentially feasible.
This cost is to be added to water production costs. A threshold cost of 0. Figure 4 Battery vs reservoir preliminary design size and corresponding iso-lines of the cost for energy storage facilities.
Reservoir search radius of 1 km. Full size image Our estimate of about 0. It is interesting to evaluate the volume that can be produced by a given plant, when it is not possible to exchange power with the grid.
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Because the capital expenditure CAPEX for producing 1 m3 of water is obtained from the present value of the investment cost divided by the total production volume, if a plant does not produce to full capacity because it cannot rely on power from the grid, its CAPEX increases.
Values around 2. Figure 5 CAPEX multiplier to be considered for oversized plants in order that keep the same water production if the grid is absent or not reliable. The abscissa refers to the plant without energy storage; the ordinate refers to the three energy storage options including battery, reservoir or both. Full size image This allows appreciating the possible benefits of energy storage for a plant. Concluding remarks and perspectives Securing water availability to millions of people is technically possible thanks to large-scale desalination but requires considering, besides direct environmental impacts such as brine disposal, the indirect impacts due to its large energy option ro.
Coupling desalination with renewable energy sources is therefore essential for the sustainable production of desalinated water. Based on the analysis presented here, we have shown that supplying desalinated water to — million people in the extended Mediterranean region requires a PV installed capacity of Where the power grid is adequate to completely buffer the intermittency of PV option ro, the production of clean water may be scheduled at a constant rate. However, where the grid is not adequate, clean water production needs to adapt to the variability of power.
On-site energy storage also regulates power exchanges with the grid, thus reducing risks of overload of the electric system.
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The investments for the implementation of on-site energy storage are expected to add an order of 0. If the grid exchange is not possible or unreliable, the plant would be operated intermittently leading to increased capital costs to achieve the same water production.
Under this condition a plant without storage facilities can have overall capital costs larger than a similar plant with internal energy storage, although energy storage requires further investments. A systematic investigation of this aspect is anyway beyond the scope of this contribution. The solar energy in excess of desalination requirements may also offset the carbon footprint of other energy uses.
The average of the power exchanges with the grid of option ro plants in the region is obviously smaller than power exchanges at a single plant due to the cancelling out of individual peaks. This suggests that designing desalination plants as a regional network, rather than in isolation, may significantly stabilize the electric grid, and hints to the relevance of international cooperation on investments and the pooling of water and energy resources, as a possible win-win and cost-effective strategy to improve their security.
Data availability The analysis can be reproduced and applied elsewhere using the algorithm described in the SI. References 1. Jones, E. The state of desalination and brine production: A global outlook.
Total Environ. Kasaeian, A. Osmotic desalination by solar energy: A critical review. Ahmed, F. Solar powered desalination—Technology, energy and future outlook.