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All rights reserved This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Over the past decade, the unfortunate reality is that the income gap has widened between Canadian families. Educational outcomes are one of the key areas influenced by family incomes. Children from low-income families often start school already behind their peers who come from more affluent families, as shown in measures of school readiness.
However, both Canadian and international interventions have shown that the effects of poverty can be reduced using sustainable interventions.
The impact of poverty on educational outcomes for children
Paediatricians and family doctors have many opportunities to influence readiness for school and educational success in primary care settings. Poverty remains a stubborn fact of life even in rich countries like Canada. In particular, the poverty of our children has been a continuing concern. Inthe Canadian House of Commons voted unanimously to eliminate poverty among Canadian children by 1.
However, the reality is that, inone of every six children still lived in poverty.
Not only have we been unsuccessful at eradicating child poverty, but over the past decade, the inequity of family incomes in Canada has grown 2and for some families, the depth of poverty has increased as well 3.
Persistent socioeconomic disadvantage has a negative impact on the life outcomes of many Canadian children.
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Research from the Ontario Child Health Study in the how to find out the values of the trend line reported noteworthy associations between low income and psychiatric disorders 5social and academic functioning 6and chronic physical health problems 7. Much of our current knowledge about the development of Canadian children is derived from the analysis of the NLSCY data by researchers in a variety of settings.
One of the key areas influenced by family income is educational outcomes. The present article provides a brief review of the literature concerning the effects of poverty on educational outcomes focusing on Canadian research.
The impact of poverty on educational outcomes for children
We conclude with some suggestions about what we can do, as advocates and practitioners, to work toward reducing the negative impact of economic disadvantage on the educational outcomes of our children.
It requires physical well-being and appropriate motor development, emotional health and a positive approach to new experiences, age-appropriate social knowledge and competence, age-appropriate language skills, and age-appropriate general knowledge and cognitive skills 9.
Six poverty-related factors are known to impact child development in general and school readiness in particular. Children from low-income families often do not gas option the stimulation and do not learn the social skills required to prepare them for school.
Typical problems are parental inconsistency with regard to daily routines and parentingfrequent changes of primary caregivers, lack of supervision and poor role modelling. Very often, the parents of these children also lack support. Canadian studies have also demonstrated the association between low-income households and decreased school readiness. A report by Thomas 10 concluded that children from lower income households score significantly lower on measures of vocabulary and communication skills, knowledge of numbers, copying and symbol use, ability to concentrate and cooperative play with other children than children from higher income households.
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Janus et al 11 found that schools with the largest proportion of children with low school readiness were from neighbourhoods of high social risk, including poverty. Willms 12 established that children from lower socioeconomic status SES households scored lower on a receptive vocabulary test than higher SES children.
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Thus, the evidence is clear and unanimous that poor children arrive at school at a cognitive earnings on the Internet without investments 10 706 behavioural disadvantage. Schools are obviously not in a position to equalize this gap.
For instance, research by The Institute of Research and Public Policy Montreal, Quebec showed that differences between students from low and high socioeconomic neighbourhoods were evident by grade 3; children from low socioeconomic neighbourhoods were less likely to pass a grade 3 standards test Phipps and Lethbridge 15 examined income and child outcomes in children four to 15 years of age based on data from the NLSCY.
In this study, higher incomes were consistently associated with better outcomes for children.
The largest effects were for cognitive and school measures teacher-administered math and reading scoresfollowed by behavioural and health measures, and then social and emotional measures, which had the smallest associations.
These Canadian findings are accompanied by a large number of studies in the United States that have shown that socioeconomic disadvantage and other risk factors that are associated with poverty eg, lower parental education and high family stress have a negative effect on cognitive development and academic achievement, smaller effects on behaviour and inconsistent effects on socioemotional outcomes 17 — Living in extreme and persistent poverty has particularly negative effects 18although the consequences of not being defined below the poverty line but still suffering from material hardship should not be underestimated Furthermore, American studies found strong interaction effects between SES and exposure to risk factors.
For instance, parents from disadvantaged backgrounds were not only more likely to have their babies born prematurely, but these prematurely born children were also disproportionately at higher risk for school failure than children with a similar neonatal record from higher income families It is worth noting that international studies have consistently shown similar associations between socioeconomic measures and academic outcomes.
At these two different stages of schooling, there was a significant relationship between SES and educational measure in all countries. Test results can be misleading and can mask the gradient if the sample does not account for all children who should be completing the test.
A study 13 completed by the Institute of Research and Public Policy demonstrated only small differences between low and high socioeconomic students when test results were compared in those students who sat for the examination. However, when results were compared for the entire body of children who should have written the examination, the differences between low and high socioeconomic students were staggering, mainly due to the over-representation of those who left school early in the low socioeconomic group.
Longitudinal studies carried out in the United States have been crucial in demonstrating some of the key factors in producing and maintaining poor achievement.
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Comparisons of the academic growth curves of students during the school year and over the summer showed that much of the achievement gap between low and high SES students could be related to their out-of-school environment families and communities. This result strongly supports the notion that schools play a crucial compensatory role; however, it also shows the importance of continued support for disadvantaged students outside of the school environment among their families and within their communities Once again, the evidence indicates that students from low-income families are disadvantaged right through the education system to postsecondary training.
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A variety of data are relevant to this question, and recent research gives us reason to be both positive and proactive. Early intervention There is a direct link between early childhood intervention and increased social and cognitive earnings on the Internet without investments 10 706 Prevention and intervention programs that target health concerns eg, immunization and prenatal care are associated with better health outcomes for low-income children and result in increased cognitive ability However, it is the parent-child relationship that has been proven to have the greatest influence on reversing the impact of poverty.
Characteristics of parenting such as predictability of behaviour, social responsiveness, verbal behaviour, mutual attention and positive role modelling have been shown to have a positive effect on several aspects of child outcome.
The global provision of schooling is facing unprecedented challenges as a result of the COVID crisis. Within the span of a few months, countries had closed their schools to deploy social distancing measures in accordance with the World Health Organisation WHO recommendations.
Parental involvement, such as frequency of outings 29 and problem-based play, creates greater intellectual stimulation and educational support for a child, and develops into increased school readiness