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Bring the token to the exchange. Chapter 7. Token Exchange Red Hat Single Sign-On | Red Hat Customer Portal

Jones Internet-Draft A. Campbell, Ed. Ping Identity J. Bradley Yubico C. Mortimore Salesforce July 20, OAuth 2. Note that other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts.

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Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as "work in progress. All rights reserved. Please review these documents Jones, et al.

Introduction A security token is a set of information that facilitates the sharing of identity and security information in heterogeneous environments or across security domains.

Table of Contents 1. Delegation vs. Impersonation Semantics. Requirements Notation and Conventions. Token Exchange Request and Response. Relationship Between Resource, Audience and Scope.

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Successful Response. Error Response. Example Token Exchange. Token Type Identifiers. Security Considerations. Privacy Considerations. IANA Considerations. Registry Contents. OAuth Parameters Registration.

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OAuth Extensions Error Registration. Normative References. Informative References. Additional Token Exchange Examples.

bring the token to the exchange

Impersonation Token Exchange Example. Token Exchange Request. Subject Token Claims. Token Exchange Response. Issued Token Claims. Delegation Token Exchange Example. Actor Token Claims. Document History. Introduction A security token is a set of information that facilitates the sharing of identity and security information in heterogeneous environments or across security domains.

Security tokens are typically signed to achieve integrity and sometimes also encrypted to achieve confidentiality. Security tokens are also sometimes described as Assertions, such as in [ RFC ].

A Security Career in trading Service STS is a service capable of validating security tokens provided to it and issuing new security tokens in response, which enables clients to obtain appropriate access credentials for resources in heterogeneous environments or across security domains. The OAuth 2. The conventional OAuth 2.

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However, its input and output are somewhat too constrained as is to fully accommodate a security token exchange framework. This specification defines a protocol extending OAuth 2. Similar to OAuth 2. A new grant type for a token exchange request and the associated specific parameters for such a request to the token endpoint are defined by this specification.

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A token exchange response is a normal OAuth 2. The entity that makes the request to exchange tokens is considered the client in the context of the token exchange interaction. However, that does not restrict usage of this profile to traditional OAuth clients. An OAuth resource server, for example, might assume the role of the client during token exchange in order to trade an access token that it received in a protected resource request for a new token that is appropriate to include in a call to a backend service.

The new token might be an access token that is more narrowly scoped for the downstream service or it could be an entirely different kind of token. The scope of this specification is limited to the definition of a basic request-and-response protocol for an STS-style token exchange utilizing OAuth 2. Although a few new JWT claims are defined that enable delegation semantics to be expressed, the specific syntax, semantics and security characteristics of the tokens themselves both those presented to the authorization server and those obtained by the client are explicitly out of scope and no requirements are placed on the trust model in which an implementation might be deployed.

The security tokens obtained may be used in a number of contexts, the specifics of which are also beyond the scope of this specification. Impersonation Semantics One common use case for an STS as alluded to in the previous section is to allow a resource server A to make calls to a backend service C on behalf of the requesting user B.

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Depending on the local site policy and authorization infrastructure, it may be desirable for A to use its own credentials to access C along with an annotation of some form that A is acting on behalf of B "delegation"or for A to be granted a limited access credential to C but that continues to Jones, et al. Delegation and impersonation can be useful concepts in other scenarios involving multiple participants as well. When principal A impersonates principal B, A is given all the rights that B has within some defined rights context and is indistinguishable from B in that context.

bring the token to the exchange

Thus, when principal A impersonates principal B, then insofar as any entity receiving such bring the token to the exchange token is concerned, they are actually dealing with B. It is true that some members of the identity system might have awareness that impersonation is going on, but it is not a requirement. For all intents and purposes, when A is impersonating B, A is B within the context of the rights authorized by the token. A's ability to impersonate B could be limited in scope or time, or even with a one- time-use restriction, whether via the contents of the token or an out-of-band mechanism.

Delegation semantics are different than impersonation semantics, though the two are closely related.

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With delegation semantics, bring the token to the exchange A still has its own identity separate from B and it is explicitly understood that while B may have delegated some of its rights to A, any actions taken are being taken by A representing B. In a sense, A is an agent for B. Delegation and impersonation are not inclusive of all situations.

When a principal is acting directly on its own behalf, for example, neither delegation nor impersonation are in play.

They are, however, the bring the token to the exchange common semantics operating for token exchange and, as such, are given more direct treatment in this specification.

Delegation semantics are typically expressed in a token by including information about both the primary subject of the token as well as the actor to whom that subject has delegated some of its rights. Such a token is sometimes referred to as a composite token because it is composed of information about multiple subjects. A composite token issued by the authorization server will contain information about both parties. When and if a composite token is issued is at the discretion of the authorization server and applicable policy and configuration.

The specifics of representing a composite token and even whether or not such a token will be issued depend on the details of the implementation and the kind of token. The representations of composite tokens that are not JWTs are beyond the scope of this Jones, et al.

Terminology This specification uses the terms "access token type", "authorization server", "client", "client identifier", "resource server", "token endpoint", "token request", and "token response" defined by OAuth 2.

bring the token to the exchange

Token Exchange Request and Response 2. Client authentication to the authorization server is done using the normal mechanisms provided by OAuth 2. The supported methods of client authentication and whether or not to allow unauthenticated or unidentified clients are deployment decisions that are at the discretion of the authorization server. Note that omitting client authentication allows for a compromised token to be leveraged via an STS into other tokens by anyone possessing the compromised token.

Thus client authentication allows for additional authorization checks by the STS as to which entities are permitted to impersonate or receive delegations from other entities. The value "urn:ietf:params:oauth:grant-type:token- exchange" indicates that a token exchange is being performed. A URI that indicates the target service or resource where the client intends to use the requested security token. This enables the authorization server to apply policy as appropriate for the target, such as determining the type and content of the token to bring the token to the exchange issued or if and how the token is to be encrypted.

In many cases, a client will not have knowledge of the logical organization of the systems with which it interacts and will only know a URI of the service where it intends to use the token. The "resource" parameter allows the client to indicate to the authorization server where it intends to use the issued token by providing the location, typically as an https URL, in the token exchange request in the same form that will be used opttrader options access that resource.

The authorization server will typically have the capability to map from a resource URI value to an appropriate policy.

bring the token to the exchange

Multiple "resource" parameters may be used to indicate that the issued token is intended to be used at the multiple resources listed. See [ I-D. The logical name of the target service where the client intends to use the requested security token. This serves a purpose similar to the "resource" parameter, but with the client providing a logical name for the target service.

Interpretation of the name requires that the value be something that both the client and the authorization server understand. Core ], are examples of things that might be used as "audience" parameter values.

bring the token to the exchange

However, "audience" values used with a given authorization server must be unique within that server, to ensure that they are properly interpreted as the intended type of value. Multiple "audience" parameters may be used to indicate that the issued token is intended to be used at the multiple audiences listed.

The "audience" and "resource" parameters may be used together to indicate multiple target services with a mix of logical names and resource URIs.

Jones, et al. The values and associated semantics of scope are service specific and expected to be described in the relevant service documentation.

An identifier, as described in Section 3for the type of the requested security token. If the requested type is unspecified, the issued token type is at the discretion of the authorization server and may be dictated by knowledge of the requirements of the service or resource indicated by the "resource" or "audience" parameter. A security token that represents the identity of the party on behalf of whom the request is being made.

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Typically, the subject of this token will be the subject of the security token issued in response to the request. A security token that represents the identity of the acting party.

Typically, this will be the party that is authorized to use the requested security token and act on behalf of the subject. In processing the request, the authorization server MUST perform the appropriate validation procedures for the indicated token type and, if the actor token is present, also perform the appropriate validation procedures for its indicated token type.

The validity criteria and details of any particular token are beyond the scope of this document and are specific to the respective type of token and its content. Furthermore, the exchange is a one-time event and does not create a tight linkage between the input and output tokens, so that for example while the expiration time of the output token may be influenced by that of the input token, renewal or extension of the input token is not expected to be reflected in the output token's properties.

It may still be appropriate or desirable to propagate token revocation events. However, doing so is not a general property of the STS protocol and would be specific to a particular implementation, token type or deployment.

Relationship Between Resource, Audience and Scope When requesting a token, the client can indicate the desired target service s where it intends to use that token by way of the "audience" and "resource" parameters, as well as indicating the desired scope of the requested token using the "scope" parameter. The semantics of such a request are that the client is asking for a token with the requested scope that is usable at all the requested target services. Effectively, the requested access rights of the token are the cartesian product of all the scopes at all the target services.

An authorization server may be unwilling or unable to fulfill any token request but the likelihood of an unfulfillable request is significantly higher when very broad access rights are being solicited. As such, in the absence of specific knowledge about the relationship of systems in a deployment, clients should exercise discretion in the breadth of the access requested, particularly the number of target services.

Response The authorization server responds to a token exchange request with a normal OAuth 2.