Four Examples of Intellectual Property

Make money intellectually, Intellectual property - Wikipedia

Thinkstock Intellectual property IP is the lifeblood of every organization.

Most Fortune CEOs, when asked how they intend to increase shareholder value, will talk about increasing sales, creating new leading-edge product lines, or pursuing mergers and acquisitions. And not just here, either. Increasingly, companies that are good at managing IP will win. Indeed, many chief executives still regard patents, trademarks, copyrights, and other forms of intellectual property as legal matters best left to the corporate attorneys to fuss over while the CEOs concentrate on the truly strategic stuff of competitive warfare.

Security pros must understand the dark forces that are trying to get this information from your company and piece it together in a useful way. Some of these forces come in the guise of "competitive intelligence" researchers who, in theory, are governed by a set of legal and ethical guidelines carefully wrought by the Society of Competitive Intelligence Professionals SCIP.

Others are outright spies hired by competitors, or even foreign governments, who'll stop at nothing, including bribes, thievery, or even a pressure-activated tape recorder hidden in your CEO's chair. IP protection is a complex duty with aspects that fall under the purview of legal, IT, human resources and other departments. Ultimately a chief security officer CSO or risk committee often serves to unify intellectual property protection efforts.

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With protection from cyber attack now critical, the chief information security officer CISO now plays a major role. This primer covers everything from establishing basic policies to procedures for IP protection.

What is intellectual property? IP can be anything from a particular manufacturing process to plans for a product launch, a trade secret like a chemical formula, or a list of the countries in which your patents are registered. It may help to think of it as intangible proprietary information. IP is divided into two categories: Industrial property includes but is not limited to patents for inventions, trademarks, industrial designs and geographical indications.

Copyright covers literary works like novels, poems and plays, films, music and artistic works, for example drawings, paintings, photographs, sculptures, web site pages and architectural design.

Rights related to copyright include those of performing artists in their performances, producers of phonograms in their recordings, and broadcasters in their radio and television programs. For many companies, such as those in the pharmaceutical business, IP is much more valuable than any physical asset.

IP theft costs U. The four legally defined categories of intellectual property for which make money intellectually can be prosecuted are: Patents grant the legal right to exclude anyone else from manufacturing or marketing your unique tangible things. They can also be registered in foreign countries to help keep international competitors from finding out what make money intellectually company is doing. Once you hold a patent, others can apply to license your product.

Patents can last for 20 years.

Discovering New Value in Intellectual Property

Trademarks are names, phrases, sounds or symbols used in association with services or products. A trademark often connects a brand with a level of quality on which companies build a reputation. Trademark protection lasts for 10 years after registration and can be renewed in perpetuity. Copyright protects written or artistic expressions fixed in a tangible medium make money intellectually novels, poems, songs or movies.

A copyright protects the expression of an idea, but not the idea itself. The owner of make money intellectually copyrighted work has the right to reproduce it, to make derivative works from it such as a movie based on a bookor to sell, perform or display the work to the public. You don't need to register your material to hold a copyright, but registration is a prerequisite if you decide to sue for copyright infringement.

A copyright lasts for the life of the author plus another 50 years.

Rule 2: Know Your (Intellectual Property) Rights

Trade secrets can be a formula, pattern, device or compilation make money intellectually data that grants the user an advantage over competitors is a trade secret.

They are covered by state, rather than federal, law. To protect the secret, a business must prove that it adds value to the company — that it is, in fact, a secret — and that appropriate measures have been taken within the company to safeguard the secret, such as restricting knowledge to a select handful of executives. IP can can simply be an idea as well. How do you keep intellectual property safe? If your IP is stolen by ne'er-do-wells, catching them is hard, prosecuting them is harder, and getting the stolen information back Orient Trading Ltd. putting the proverbial cat back in its bag — is usually impossible.

In this area, a little paranoia is quite helpful, because people really are out to get you. Consider these real-life examples.

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An engineer regularly had lunch with a former boss now working for a rival, and fancied himself a hero for gathering competitive intelligence. The information he was giving up in return caused his employer, formerly the market leader, to lose three major bids in 14 months.

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Immigrant scientists from Eastern Europe who were working on an American defense got unsolicited invitations from their home countries to speak at seminars or serve as paid consultants. The invitations appealed to them as scientists — they wanted to share information about their work with peers. The countries saw this kind of intelligence gathering as cheaper than research and development.

The steps below are the minimum you should to top keep your IP safe. Know what intellectual property you've got If all employees understand what needs to be protected, they can better understand how to protect it, and from whom to protect it. To do that, CSOs must communicate on an ongoing basis with the executives who oversee intellectual capital.

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Corporate leadership must work in concert to adequately protect IP. Know where your intellectual property is If you focus your efforts on your core IT systems to secure IP, you will overlook other areas where it might be stored or processed.

Proper policies and procedures need to be in place to purge these documents and protect against unauthorized access. Cloud applications and file-sharing services: These might be company-managed or shadow IT.

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You need to know what your employees are using so you can restrict unauthorized cloud services and ensure that company-sanctioned services are properly configured and secured. Educate your employees on the proper handling of IP and have monitoring systems in place to track where your IP is being sent. Third-party systems: IP is often shared with business partners, suppliers, or customers.

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Make sure your contracts with those parties define how those third parties must make money intellectually your IP and have controls in place to ensure those terms are followed. Prioritize your intellectual property CSOs who have been protecting IP for years recommend doing a risk and cost-benefit analysis. Make a map of your company's assets and determine what information, if lost, would hurt your company the most.

Having the right type of intellectual property protection helps you to stop people stealing or copying: the names of your products or brands your inventions the design or look of your products things you write, make or produce Copyright, patents, designs and trade marks are all types of intellectual property protection. You get some types of protection automatically, others you have to apply for. What counts as intellectual property Intellectual property is something that you create using your mind - for example, a story, an invention, an artistic work or a symbol. Owning intellectual property created it and it meets the requirements for copyrighta patent or a design bought intellectual property rights from the creator or a previous owner have a brand that could be a trade markfor example, a well-known product name Intellectual property can: have more than one owner belong to people or businesses be sold or transferred Intellectual property rights allow you to make money from the intellectual property you own. You usually will not own the intellectual make money intellectually for something you created as part of your work while you were employed by someone else.

Then consider which of those assets are most at risk of being stolen. Putting those two factors together should help you figure out where to best spend your protective efforts and money.

Label valuable intellectual property If information is confidential to your company, put a banner or label on it that says so. If your company data is proprietary, put a note to that effect on every log-in screen.

This seems trivial, but if you wind up in court trying to prove someone took information they weren't authorized to take, your argument won't stand up if you can't demonstrate that you made it clear that the information was protected.

Secure your intellectual property both physically and digitally Physical and digital protection is a must. Lock the rooms where sensitive data is stored, whether it's the server farm or the musty paper archive room.

Keep track of who has the keys.

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Use passwords and limit employee access to important databases. Educate employees about intellectual property Awareness training can be effective for plugging and preventing IP leaks, but only if it's targeted to the information that a specific group of employees needs to guard. When you talk in specific terms about something that engineers or scientists have invested a lot of time in, they're very attentive.

As is often the case, humans are often the weakest link in the defensive chain.

PLoS Comput Biol 8 11 : e This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Funding: The authors received no specific funding for this article.

That's why an IP protection effort that counts on firewalls and copyrights, but doesn't also focus on employee awareness and training, is doomed to fail. In most cases, IP leaves an organization by accident or through negligence. Make sure your employees are aware of how they might unintentially expose IP. According to a February study by Egress Software Technologiesthe most common technologies through which sensitive data like IP are accidentally breached are: External email like a Gmail or Yahoo account 51 percent Corporate email 46 percent File sharing make money intellectually FTP 40 percent Collaboration tools like Slack or Dropbox 38 percent SMS or instant messaging apps like Whatsapp 35 percent With email, IP might make money intellectually sent to the wrong person because: The sender used a wrong address--for example, Outlook auto-inserted an email address for someone other than the intended recipient The recipient forwarded the email An attachment contained hidden content, such as in make money intellectually Excel tab Data was forwarded to a personal email account make money intellectually.

Know your tools to protect intellectual property A growing variety of software tools are available for tracking documents and other IP stores. Data loss prevention DLP tools are now a core component of many security suites. They not only locate sensitive documents, but also keep track of how they are being used and by whom.

Intellectual property

Encrypting IP in some cases will also reduce risk of loss. The Egress survey data shows that only 21 percent of companies require encryption when sharing sensitive data externally, and only 36 percent require it internally.

Take a big picture view If someone is scanning the internal network and your intrusion detection system goes off, somebody from IT typically calls the employee who's doing the scanning and tells him to stop.