Options in action
The option is best suited to areas where human lives are not at risk, or where impacts on infrastructure are minor, or even where inhabitants are willing to accept the risk. If this option is selected, there needs to be information provided to stakeholders about likely changes, potential losses and associated timing, and whether this option needs to be augmented with any other options such as minor relocation of infrastructure.
This is likely to be an important consideration for many adaptation planners because of the expense of implementing many adaptation options. No regrets options mud-planting.
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They are also options which are valid regardless of uncertain future climate outcomes. Such actions may already be identified in, and funded through, existing management or strategic plans e. Examples include options to reduce runoff of sediment and nutrient onto coral reefs.
These support the survival of reefs in present conditions and increase their resilience to the effects of increased water temperatures resulting from climate change. A further example is restricting development of houses on floodplains, which reduces potential for flooding now and in the future.
Win-win options estuary. One example is to prioritise the prevention of new developments in areas close to the foreshores of estuaries. This can reduce the potential for flooding, and enable saltmarshes and other estuarine for making money on the Internet to migrate shoreward as sea levels rise.
Such a shift would recognize and give increased importance to the multifunctionality of agriculture, accounting for the complexity of agricultural systems within diverse social and ecological contexts. It would require new institutional and organizational arrangements to promote an integrated approach to the development and deployment of AKST.
Existing actions excavator. These plans trading strategy news strategies will list a variety of actions to address specific issues. As mentioned above it is likely that many of these actions will address some of the impacts associated with a climate-affected future, and therefore it is important that they are identified and incorporated into, or linked to a climate adaptation strategy.
Some actions may no longer be relevant under climate change or will conflict with adaptation options. A simple, relatively easy exercise is to list all the actions and strategies from other plans and consider their relevance by addressing a series of questions about each action.
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List the stressors. What are the climate change impacts that the measure will address? Does the action have the potential to exacerbate climate change or conflict with other possible adaptation actions? Is the action still relevant in a climate-affected future? Is the priority associated with the action options in action appropriate? Can the action be extended, or built on, to increase its relevance as a climate adaptation measure?
Who do we need to engage with about this action? Adaptation options must be fit-for-purpose and must clearly aim options in action address the scale of the impacts that are likely to occur in your selected area.
While it is possible to select options from lists, these must be considered in light of the challenges that are being addressed. It is important to consider opportunities and benefits which can arise from the adaptation options that are considered and implemented. For example, trees can be planted above dunes to encourage stability and reduce wind and water erosion. The trees can provide shade for beach goers, improving their experience and keeping them cool and shaded.
This can attract visitors options in action the area, with resultant economic benefits. Planting trees at a sufficient scale may also uptake carbon and be approved for funding under a options in action mitigation scheme Figure 1.
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Most options can be staged or incremental, changing as the effects of climate become greater. There is the potential however that eventually the effects of climate will become so great, that significant changes are required to address them. This may require transformational change. Most of the adaptation options and actions that are identified in many adaptation plans involve making small changes to existing settings, behaviours or practices.
It is possible that at some time taking a series of actions that are gradually more intensive and costly might not be sufficient to address the challenge of climate change.
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At this stage it is possible that a radical or transformative change will be a better option or perhaps the only option. It is important that such options are considered but not necessarily implementedand in considering them it is particularly important to have a holistic appreciation of the whole system and the way it may respond. It is also important to consider early on the capacity of the organisation and its stakeholders to participate and implement such radical options.
These include, the necessary capacities, including leadership and community engagement, and a well thought out learning process, to ensure your transformation is effective adaptation.
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With transformation options in action a whole of system appraisal it will tend to be considered at the scales of state or national or international governments. But local governments and businesses and industry may identify options which are transformative in options in action, and can be important test sites for innovation and learning in climate change adaptation activities and policy development.
It can have direct effects e. It may also reduce the effects of storm surge. Other benefits are that mangroves are important fish and crab habitat, and promote a high accumulation of carbon.
It is important to ensure that climate risks are considered in light of other risks. Climate risks cannot be considered in isolation, because when senior managers or stakeholders have to decide what action to take, assessments will be based on an understanding of the wider benefits — not always on climate change alone.
Integrated solutions enable actions to be identified that are most beneficial to society. Often a suite of actions is possible, and it is necessary when determining the most appropriate options, that the interactions between the various options are understood and considered when evaluating options Step 4.
It is essential that options that are being considered, or that are already implemented or being implemented, do not impact on other options in a negative way. Climate change is not static, and there is continual uncertainty about its extent and nature, and how it will influence other drivers.
The uncertainty about the options in action, types and timing of change provides a challenge for decision makers who may not wish to implement expensive adaptation options until they are certain they are required. This can be dealt with by sequencing adaptation actions, starting with no regrets options and building to different options when selected thresholds are reached. This approach is referred to as the adaptation pathways approach and is discussed in more detail in Step 4.
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Additional detail can be accessed here. Iteration with C-CADS Step 2 Assess risks and vulnerability At this stage of the process, you will be in a position to revisit your assessment of risks and vulnerability before jumping immediately to the next step. Iterating between vulnerability and risk assessments in identifying options will help to avoid wasted time and effort. Have you considered suites of options including soft social and environmental and hard engineering solutions?
Have you collated lists of options, including assessing whether existing options from other management plans and strategies are relevant or should be reprioritised as a result of climate change, and incorporated into your adaptation plan? Have you included short, medium and long term options?
Have you checked whether the option that you are considering for your adaptation is compatible with your State policies? Have you started to consider how different options influence each other, address other risks, and how you might sequence options in a pathways approach?
Critical Success Factors Identification of a broad range of adaptation options and relevant information Review of existing options from plans and strategies that can be reprioritised to help achieve short-term and long-term outcomes Stakeholders actively participating in identifying options and solutions.