MONITOR | meaning in the Cambridge English Dictionary

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Full size table It is not possible to calculate the total revenue of dictionary apps in the two app stores in absolute terms, as the figures given in Schoger ibid. App dictionary publishers should therefore not expect profit winners in the same league as games, productivity and utility apps. On the 9th Junethe Apple App Store had 5, free and paid dictionary apps and Google Play 4, apps, giving a ratio ofrespectively.

If paid apps are solely considered, the number of apps drops to 4, and 2, respectively, i. These apps mostly contain premium, branded dictionaries which tend to sell well. Generally speaking, app prices which are set by the dictionary publisher increase with the number of headwords in the dictionary——a tradition inherited from the print industry.

Prices set by software developers, conversely, are often unrelated to the size of the dictionary. Unlike a book, users cannot determine from the app how many headwords it contains and so developers do not feel obliged to set the price based on the number of headwords.

Such developers may keep increasing the price until profit starts to fall. Language coverage The main publishing houses of Western European languages, Japanese and Korean have released apps for most of their dictionary range including separate apps for different sized dictionaries, e. Although there are dictionary apps for other languages, e. Characteristics of high-grossing apps It is possible to make generalizations about which kinds of dictionary apps rank highly in the grossing charts based on the rankings of dictionary apps between the years and The app revenues tend to be highest for well-known dictionary publishers in their own country, e.

The Larousse French dictionaries sell very well in France. The rankings outside of their home country are generally much lower than in the home country.

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This is presumably because most learners of a particular language reside in their home country and use the dictionary compiled by well-known local publishing houses. For instance, most users of a French—English dictionary are French living in France and use dictionaries published by Larousse.

dictionary of terms on making money on the Internet monitor

The exception to this generalization covers English dictionaries compiled by publishers such as Oxford University Press, Collins and Merriam-Webster. These dictionaries sell well outside the home countries of UK and USA, as many non-English native speakers buy English monolingual dictionaries in their home country. As the highest grossing dictionary apps tend to be dictionaries by local publishers for the local language, one can conclude that the reputation of the publisher is the most significant factor in predicting the sales of a dictionary, not the functions of the dictionary or the reputation of the developer.

Apps of well-known dictionaries offering basic headword search without advanced or extra features such as word quizzes, word games, the ability to search for examples, idioms and other inflectional forms of a word or phrase, are likely to sell just as well as a comparable dictionary app with these features.

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The French—English Dictionary by Larousse and the Merriam-Webster dictionary app are good examples of apps with no-frills features which sell very well. There are, however, several examples of less known dictionaries becoming the best-selling apps in their country primarily because they were the first dictionaries available for that language, i. For example, although Genius is one of the best-selling English—Japanese print dictionaries, the Wisdom English—Japanese Dictionary app by Monokakido www.

Although Daijirin by the publisher Sanseido is not the best-known Japanese monolingual dictionary, the app produced by Monokakido was one of the first to appear in the Apple App Store and is the most popular monolingual dictionary app. In addition, the design of its user interface won it great exposure from Apple. Such free apps are called freemiums. Freemiums are, however, poorly represented among dictionary apps.

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Footnote 2 Cheap apps with in-app purchases or freemiums often only contain small, sometimes open source dictionaries to whet the appetite of users. Expensive apps with in-app purchase, however, what is a trading plan in trading contain a premium dictionary in the base app. The Prolog www.

dictionary of terms on making money on the Internet monitor

The full version of each dictionary can be activated with an in-app purchase. The reluctance of dictionary app developers to make use of the freemium model is presumably due to the tradition in the print industry where a single book is the basic product.

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As print dictionary publishers are the ones to license their content to developers and drive dictionary app development in general, they carry this tradition on into the app store where one app is created for one print dictionary. Ideally, several books or sources useful for learning a particular language should be integrated into one app.

For example, the basic app may contain a general dictionary. Specialized dictionaries, a collocations dictionary, extra example sentences, phrase books, grammar and usage references, verb conjugation tables, pronunciation recordings and cultural notes could be made available as in-app purchases.

This contributes to its consistent highest rankings among Chinese dictionaries across stores.

An analysis of the smartphone dictionary app market

Competitors of dictionary apps The biggest competitors of paid dictionary apps fall into three categories: 1 machine translation engines, 2 portals and websites offering free premium dictionary content and 3 dictionaries embedded in mobile phone operating binary trading platforms. Machine translation apps allow users to translate single words or entire sentences automatically.

They are popular as they are mostly free, allow translation between a large combination of languages, support sentence input using voice recognition and can pronounce the output sentence using speech synthesis technology.

dictionary of terms on making money on the Internet monitor

High-quality machine translation apps show a high user satisfaction rating and hence are an important competitor of dictionary apps.

The second main competitor of dictionary apps consists of Internet portals and publisher websites that provide free access to premium dictionaries. There are also Internet portals such as Naver dic.

The prime advantage of using a dedicated dictionary app compared to visiting a web portal with dictionaries was originally that the app was much faster, more complex animation sequences could be shown, and buttons could be provided to pronounce words and sentences. With the introduction of ultra-fast LTE networks and the promulgation of HTML5——a website language which allows developers to implement animation, sound and video into websites more easily, the difference in user experience between a dedicated dictionary app and a dictionary website viewed in a standard browser is fast diminishing.

dictionary of terms on making money on the Internet monitor

The only major advantage now is that dedicated dictionary apps allow access to the dictionary when there is no Internet connection. The last competitor of dictionary apps are dictionaries embedded in the operating system of smartphones and e-readers. Conclusion After reading the above description of dictionary app revenue models, the market share of app stores, the differences in dictionary apps between app stores, app pricing strategies and the dictionary of terms on making money on the Internet monitor of dictionary apps, readers should now have a good overview of the dictionary app market.

The future of dictionary apps as money earners is, however, bleak, as more and more portals are providing free access to premium dictionaries, more and more device manufacturers are embedding dictionaries in their operating systems for free and finally the quality of machine translation software is fast approaching that of dictionaries. In future, users will no longer need to spend money on a dictionary app, as good quality translations with additional examples and translation guides will be available free of charge in the Internet.

dictionary of terms on making money on the Internet monitor

Instead, publishers should go beyond creating one app for one dictionary and create a product which integrates all content a language learner might need. Dictionary content, grammar reference works, vocab trainers, phrasebooks for travelers, encyclopedic content, culture guides, native speaker pronunciation of words and sentences, language proficient exam mock questions as well as general language exercises should be combined into a single application where relevant information is interlinked.

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In this way, language learners would no longer to search in various sources to learn a language. Such a product would go beyond what machine translation and portal sites can easily offer.

They could also be marketed to the more profitable B2B sector such as schools, companies and government for in-house language education or writing skills. Notes 1. References App annie store stats: App database. Accessed 9th June App annie store stats: Top charts. Accessed 30th December Accessed 6th January Google Play: Google Translate.

Schoger, C. Distimo Publication. Accessed dictionary of terms on making money on the Internet monitor December Spriensma, G. Accessed 9 June May A Granular app level look at revenues.