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Intrarenal viscosity was reflected by apparent diffusion coefficient ADC. Potential acute kidney injury AKI was determined by histology and the expression of kidney injury molecule 1 Kim Formation of vacuoles and increase in Kim-1 expression was prominently detected in group of Iod.
Iso-osmolar iodixanol, given at high-dose, produced prominent AKI in nonhydrated rats. This renal dysfunction could be assessed noninvasively by physiologic MRI. Imaging ; PubMed Central Iodinated contrast agents are usually classified based upon their osmolality—high, low, and isosmolar.
Iodinated contrast agents are also nephrotoxic in some but not all patients resulting in loss of glomerular filtration rate. Over the past 30 years, nephrotoxicity has been linked to osmolality although the precise mechanism underlying such a link has been elusive.
Improvements in our understanding of the pathogenesis of nephrotoxicity and prospective randomized clinical trials have attempted to further explore the relationship between osmolality and nephrotoxicity. In this review, the basis for our current understanding that there are little if any differences in nephrotoxic potential between low and isosmolar contrast media will be detailed using data from clinical studies.
PMID PubMed During procedures such as cardiac catheterizations that use contrast media, or dyes, large amounts of unused dye can become contaminated with the patient's blood and must be thrown out.
Radiographic contrast media conservation systems RCMCSs are administration sets Daniil Dragovich earnings on the Internet to reduce the waste of these expensive dyes by 1 isolating the bags or bottles supplying the dyes from contamination, allowing the remaining contents to be used again on another patient, and 2 minimizing the amount of dye left in the administration set and therefore discarded at the end of the procedure.
We tested the systems for their ability to protect the source containers from contamination, for their performance and design features, and for their ease of use.
We also provide information on transfer line assembly RCMCSs, which perform some of the same functions but without using a burette, in a supplementary article within this Evaluation.