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Неужели он ее трогает. Она не сразу поняла, что он пытается застегнуть верхнюю пуговицу ее блузки. - Сьюзан, - позвал он, задыхаясь. - Ты должна помочь мне выбраться отсюда.
As a result, we can get a list of key risks and real options, then identify the most significant of them. In the scientific writings of domestic authors they emphasize the sufficiency of applying the method of species analysis and the consequences of refusals Failure Mode and Effects Analysis, FMEA to rank the level of uncertainty in terms of selecting the most significant risk events at all stages of the life cycle of technological developments to analyze the risks of potential inconsistencies.
In the West this method has been successfully used for more than half a century to assess the level of risks in the military, aviation, nuclear, automotive and other areas. The work systematizes the main features of applicability of the FMEA method.
Current issues of company evaluation under fintech
It is proved that when ranking the level of uncertainty of implementation of modem financial technologies the following conditions are fulfilled: risks and opportunities for implementing financial and technological applications are assessed in the context of limited information and are one of the types of innovative technological risks; it is convenient to comprehensively evaluate the maximum number of significant risk events related to the projects of implementation of modem financial technologies; not all risk events are carefully evaluated, but only the most significant ones; the results of the ranking are input data for further quantitative evaluation of the risk event.
Methodical recommendations for the scoring of the level of specific uncertainty are proposed.
It is shown that the method of FMEA risk assessment in its original form is not applicable for these purposes, since it includes an overly aggregated estimate of the "value" parameter without taking into account specific factors. It is proposed to improve this method of preliminary assessment and the ranking of risky implementation of financial technologies, for which three new parameters with the corresponding specific weight were gusev real options the area of occurrence of uncertainty, the level of occurrence of uncertainty, the way of introduction of financial technologies.
To further quantify the level of risks and opportunities it is difficult to use the Russian model of the real options, because it uses only one parameter - inflation. This is not enough for a correct assessment of companies in the conditions of implementation of modem financial technologies. We propose to adapt this model for valuation of financial and technological companies adjusting three gusev real options in the following way: the rate of the largest forecast inflation should be replaced by the rate of the biggest value of the forecast growth in the risk factor for the period, expressed in percentages; the rate of the least predicted inflation should be replaced by the rate of the least value of the forecast growth of risk factor for the period, expressed in percent; the rate of inflation, forecast, stipulated by the contract, is to be replaced by the expected growth rate of the risk factor for the period, expressed in percentage.
The limitations of the original binomial model result in the limitation of the proposed model - the analysis of real options of risk factors for which growth is projected.
Elowever, this is not a problem, since in practice one usually tries to determine and quantify real options precisely for the projected increasing trend line formula of implementation of financial technologies.
- Надеюсь, это не уловка с целью заставить меня скинуть платье.
- Revista ESPACIOS | Vol. 41 (01)
The cost of a real option is gusev real options payment for taking a certain risk during the implementation of new financial technologies. Ultimately, the determined value of the risk factor affects the final net gusev real options value of the risky project: where V-the cost of risk in monetary terms; NPVro, NPVf- the cost of the net present value of the project of implementation of new financial technologies with and without consideration of risks, in monetary terms RO - real option.
The company's value is defined as a sum of the value discovered by the discounted cash flow method without taking into account the cost of real options and the cost of the real option for this company. Therefore, for the valuation of domestic companies that do not publish financial statements the method of real options is applied as a set of actions: to choose a real option from the previously identified ones, to determine input data for the calculation; to assess the value of business without taking real options into account; to build a binomial tree and determine the value of risk in monetary terms; to calculate the value of business taking into account the real options; to draw conclusions from the obtained quantitative assessment.
As an object of analysis we chose a real company - a customer of Eagle Rock Resources Group Ltd, for which we carried out evaluation. Maintaining confidentiality, we designated the company as FC "Fintech", the indicators of the used reporting are multiplied by an by an arbitrary coefficient, which does not distort our conclusions.
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Step 1. Problem statement FC "Fintech" develops a new integrated mobile application for neo-banking in order for physical persons to be able to trade with shares by using the Internet of things IoT technology and the use of mobile phones.
Perhaps, such an application will generate big profits, but this is not obvious. One of the essential components of the system can be developed independently, but on the market there is a company start-upwhich develops or intends to develop a financial and technological product, it has an almost ready application, but it needs to be modified to fit the needs of FC "Fintech". The company's management is not completely sure if there will be a demand for the product and a full-scale modification of the development will be successful, but after creating the beta version of the application and conducting additional research it will be possible to establish if a successful implementation of this new financial technology is possible on the required scale.
Non-participation in the project is not considered; in this case the competitiveness of the company will be lost. The management of FC "Fintech" has a choice: to invest in the development of the existing application or not. Obviously, in this case, both FC Fintech and the start-up find themselves in the situation of uncertainty.
Strategic decisions and risk management
If the beta version and the conducted studies of the banking application are successful, then the price of rights to this object will instantly increase. If the startup conducts this research at its own expense, and the beta version does not find commercial application, it will simply lose its investments.
If we consider the choice of both sides as a real option "an opportunity to acquire rights without obligations", gusev real options in the event of a negative research result the startup does not lose anything, FC "Fintech" investing in the project obtains the gusev real options to choose as soon as the outcome of the beta-version development is clear : to acquire exclusive rights to a complex banking application or to give up such deal.
The authors analyze the features and disadvantages of evaluation methods, determine the practical and functional features of the evaluation methods used, and highlight their bottlenecks.
The analysis and valuation are carried out according to the above-mentioned stages as of January I, for the contract ending on December 31, Step 2. Identification of risk events Step. Identificarion of previously not covered risks with respect to assets and liabilities of the company Step 2.
Collection of infonnation about, the goals mid scope of evaluation In this study, only previously not covered risks are considered.
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Accordingly, the described scope of assessment and practical measures address only the risks specific to the implementation of financial technologies. Selection of mi expert group for the company's functional areas To carry out a risk analysis for this project of implementation the professional knowledge of economic appraiser is not enough, because it is necessary to get an opinion on a number of technical issues.
The search of causes mid sources of risks We have identified certain problems that can arise at the macro- and microlevel connected with the way of implementation of new financial technologies Table 5.
The way of implementation is interaction with the startup.
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Expected areas of risk occurrence Risk areas An application at the junction of mobile banking and online platforms for transactions Macro High volatility of bitcoin rate Macro The risk of using the technology of the Internet of things IoT Micro, macro The risk of cybersecurity as a threat gusev real options stability possible attacks Micro, macro Step 2. Detennination of the time horizon of evaluation The project is evaluated taking into account the duration two yearsthe quantitative assessment of the leading risk, which is carried out on a quarterly basis.
Preparation of questionnaires and selection of a methodfor identifying risks or their combinations Through the method of brainstorming the expert group identifies risks Table 6. As a result of discussion it was determined to consider the risk of cybersecurity only at the macro level, and the risk of using the technologies of the Internet of things, on the contrary, only at the microlevel.
Session 23: Real Options Introduction
It was also decided to additionally include the risk of shortage of specialists with the necessary competencies. Preliminaiy risk analysis with Gusev real options square At the next stage the group of experts analyzed all the identified risks with Descartes square Table I. As a result, the list of risks was expanded: the risk of damage to reputation as a result of implementation of cyber-risks and the risk of loss of client data as a result of defects in the technology of the Internet of things were also added.
Step 3. The ranking of uncertainty of risk events Step 3. Detennination of input, data for each identified risk The expert group collected the data and documents, which served as a basis for risk assessment Table 8.
Real option use in banking
For example, the risk of inconsistencies in various technologies, the risks of loss of reputation, etc. The data and supporting documents were collected for each risk.
Setting the limits for the ranking of risk priorities The limits of RPR values are set during the repeated analysis of the same risks based on expert estimates or accumulated statistical data on deviations. Since in this case there were no statistical data on the onset of risks, at the initial analysis the limits were not set.
The object of study is the investment activity of banks, and the subject is optimization of investment projects valuation method in the framework of banks risk management. The main objective of the study is to develop an optimal methodology for the investment project valuation that will enable the effective management of bank funds and obtain sufficient investment income. The relevance of the chosen topic is determined by the necessity of optimal risk management tools and definitions in assessment methods of the investment project. The use of real options is one of the innovative approaches to the valuation of assets. Traditional methods of valuating investment projects are not taken into account when calculating the competitive advantage and flexibility in management.
Calculation of RPR indicators taking into account, the improved parameters Gusev real options project was assigned parameter A2 - implementation by cooperating with the startup. The parameter is important if it is necessary to carry out a comparative evaluation of two or more projects for the introduction of financial technologies.
In the considered practical example this parameter is irrelevant. One can also enter information on the causes of risks for their subsequent analysis and elimination.