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59 strategies for options,

59 strategies for options

Russian climate politics: Light at the end of the Tunnel? Russian climate politics were certainly a talking point a few years ago due to the countrys decisive role in the entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol.

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The views of various potentially influential officials were reported by the world media almost on a daily basis. Since the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol by Russia inand its entry into force, Russian climate politics have received less attention. In this paper the authors update our previous analyses of Russian climate politics and policies, and report the latest developments, including material from the discussions in the JI in Russia workshop 26 March organised by Oxford Climate Policy in co-operation with Climate Strategies.

Сьюзан в отчаянии колотила в дверную панель, но все было бесполезно. Шифр, подумала. Кабинет постепенно утопал в дыму. Стало трудно дышать. Сьюзан бессильно прижалась к двери, за которой, всего в нескольких сантиметрах от нее, работала вентиляция, и упала, задыхаясь и судорожно хватая ртом воздух.

While almost all projects do additionality testing, only half of them identify alternatives. Barrier testing is almost universal but only a third of the projects do an investment analysis.

Small scale projects are less likely to look at the impact of CDM registration.

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A sub-sample of 19 projects is looked at in detail regarding barrier argumentation and treatment of the additionality test by the validators. Independent data sources are only used by one third of projects. Only about a fifth of projects provide a common practice analysis in sufficient detail.

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Less than half of large projects provide the relevant information on additionality in their PDD. While a technology barrier is mentioned most frequently, technology and institutional barriers, feedstock variability and lack of experience each affect a third of projects.

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The Commentary concludes that this has important implications both for allocation approaches, and for some other design elements in the EU ETS. Forecasting uncertainty is not an inconvenience which is best ignored, but a fundamental fact that must be accommodated in the future design of the EU ETS and other CO 2 emission trading schemes.

Most countries continue to allocate based on historic emissions, contrary to hopes for improved allocation methods, with allocations to installations frequently based on emission data; this may strengthen the belief in the private sector that emissions in the coming years will influence their subsequent allowance allocation.

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Allocations to new installations provide high and frequently fuel-differentiated subsidies, risking significant distortions to investment choices. Thus, in addition to supplying a long market in aggregate, proposed allocation plans reveal work extra income side job diverse problems, including perverse incentives.

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To ensure the effectiveness of the EU ETS in the future, the private sector will need to be shown credible evidence that free allowance allocation will be drastically reduced post, or that these 59 strategies for options will be addressed in some […] Second Phase NAPs: Comparison Tables Second Phase NAPs: Comparison Tables Combining efforts of an international team of experts, the available Second Phase National Allocation Plans are evaluated against detailed criteria.

The information and data collected are presented in tables to facilitate easy evaluation and comparison.

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The analysis includes calculations of the volume of allowances allocated to a standard sample power plant existing and new entrant under the different NAP2s.