Quoting and Paraphrasing

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MLA Format writing option 3: Lead with your own words and Direct Quotation

Quoting and paraphrasing the ideas and knowledge others have set forth is a way to show your reader how you arrived at your conclusions. You must always cite ideas, as well as any other information other than commonly known and accepted facts.

Quotations are most appropriate when the author is particularly well-known, when you want to add an air of authority to the information, and when the exact words are particularly eloquent.

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Paraphrasing gives you more flexibility with sentence structure and allows the reader to hear your unique voice and reasoning in the paper. Key Terms quote: To repeat the exact words of another with the acknowledgement of the source. Avoiding Generalities When writing a paper, it is important to avoid vague generalizations, especially when it comes to characterizing the thoughts of others, whether they hold similar or contrary positions to your own.

A properly placed quotation can articulate your position and provide substantiation at the same time.

Thinking about your audience and their expectations will help you make decisions about word choice. But the most important goal of academic writing is not to sound smart—it is to communicate an argument or information clearly and convincingly. It is true that academic writing has a certain style of its own and that you, as a student, are beginning to learn to read and write in that style. When writing for your professors, think simplicity. Using simple words does not indicate simple thoughts.

Most often a quotation is taken from the literature, but also sentences from a speech, scenes from a movie, elements of a painting, etc. When you find a statement summarizing evidence you plan to use or evidence you think you might use, save it.

You can use programs like Zotero or EndNote, or simply drag the quotation into a document. If you can organize your quotations by topic, so much the better.

Word Choice

In the U. There are times when a quotation will give you maximum impact and times when paraphrasing is more effective. Look at the following alternatives in a paper about transforming cultural mores.

In fact, as Gandhi said inoffering forgiveness is not a display of weakness, but indeed, its opposite. Quotations are useful when the author is particularly well-known, when you want to add an air of authority to the information, and when the exact words are particularly eloquent or historically significant. This one meets all the criteria. The first part of the sentence is your opinion, and the second part is general and undisputed knowledge.

Корпоративные программисты во всем мире озаботились решением проблемы безопасности электронной почты. В конце концов оно было найдено - так родился доступный широкой публике способ кодирования. Его концепция была столь же проста, сколь и гениальна. Она состояла из легких в использовании программ для домашнего компьютера, которые зашифровывали электронные послания таким образом, что они становились абсолютно нечитаемыми.

This is how using your own words gives the option of contextualizing. To Quote or to Paraphrase? Fewer homes were lost to fires in San Diego County last year than this year. Bitter herb combinations have been used for centuries to stimulate the digestive system.

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Number 3 is a bit of a gray area as far as citation is concerned. You might consider that a quote option in your own words an herbalist or doctor offering the same information might give the skeptical reader a feeling of being on more solid ground. You see, then, that while the issue of citation is relatively straightforward—when in doubt, cite—the question of quotation versus paraphrase is subtler. The revision process will be helpful in this regard.

The citations, throughout, are a foundational element, showing the reader how your argument developed and why you think as you do about the subject. Learning Objectives Apply formatting rules for using quotations Key Takeaways Key Points Use quotation marks around a statement to give the original writer or speaker credit. When you introduce a quote, pay close attention to the proper use of quotation marks and related punctuation.

Otherwise, you are committing plagiarism. Key Terms paraphrase: A restatement of a text in different words, often to clarify meaning. Quoting versus Paraphrasing Paraphrasing is using a particular idea that you took from another author and putting it in your own words. Quoting is using the exact words of another author.

Introducing a Quotation An introductory tag is one way to effectively introduce quotations. Consider incorporating the quote into a sentence in other ways, as well. Formatting and Punctuating Quotations Quotations call for special rules regarding punctuation: If a quotation is introduced formally, use a colon.

Use an ellipsis … to indicate that there is more to the quote than you offer here. Colons, semicolons, and dashes should be placed outside the quotation marks.

Question marks and exclamation points should be placed inside the quotation marks, unless the punctuation applies to the whole sentence not just the quote. When to Use Brackets Within Quotations When using quotations, you need to be very careful to copy the words as they appear in the source text. However, you may find that a quotation does not grammatically align with the way you want to use it, or that the relevance of the quotation may not be readily apparent to a reader.

When that happens, you might want to change it slightly in order to make it fit your essay. In such option in your own words, square brackets should be used around words not contained in the original quote. We need to honor our traditions even, and especially, after tragedy. Gomez told reporters.

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If the quote is two or more paragraphs, indent the first line of each paragraphs an additional five spaces maintaining the indent of the rest of the quote.

When using this format, you do not need to use quotation marks.

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Paraphrasing Appropriately paraphrasing the ideas of researchers and authors can add strength to your argument. Option in your own words are more powerful when source material is woven through the paper with paraphrasing, saving quotations for moments of impact, authority, and eloquence.

Key Terms context: The surroundings, circumstances, environment, or background that determine, specify, or clarify the meaning of a piece of writing. A summary is like looking at a distant source through a telescope: the general shape and ideas are clear, but the details are fuzzy.

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You want to lead your reader, in your paper, along the path that brought you to your intellectual conclusion: the thesis statement you set out in the introduction. There are a couple reasons for this: Readers like to be able to check things out for themselves.

You may tell them that Why Not Just Use Quotations? Those other voices are there to support you and your argument. In her book Caring: A Feminine Approach to Ethics and Moral Education, Nel Noddings offers a more feminine approach to education—one based on receptivity—that prioritizes caring over justice.

Understanding your "Words in Context" subscore

Even though he is citing evidence and even a specific source, the voice is still his, weaving Dr. This kind option in your own words weaving is the primary reason to use paraphrasing. Another reason is to save direct quotations for impact.

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If you quote only when the source will offer an air of authority to your argument, when the exact words are either historically important or particularly eloquent, or when the source is of primary importance to your topic, the quotes will carry much more weight. In all other instances, paraphrasing will move the narrative along much more smoothly, tying it to your own style along the way.

Writing an option refers to an investment contract in which a fee, or premiumis paid to the writer in exchange for the right to buy or sell shares at a future price and date. Put and call options for stocks are typically written in lots, with each lot representing shares. Key Takeaways Traders who write an option receive a fee, or premium, in exchange for giving the option buyer the right to buy or sell shares at specific price and date. Benefits of writing an option include receiving an immediate premium, keeping the premium if the option expires worthless, time decay, and flexibility.

Make notes during the research phase on the context of each piece of evidence you find, and double-check that context for relevance to your own claim. If you find an article that quotes a book, an interview, or another article, do your best to track down the original source so you can how much can you trade on a demo account sure of its context.

Forms of Citation Another part of authenticity, of course, is citing your sources correctly and completely.

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All of this helps your reader find the source material. Interlocking architectural components: Paraphrasing links your own thinking with the ideas and research of others, creating a strong and engaging argument. Provided by: Boundless.